Oshoosi Video Master Class: Film Contents & Script, (Glossary & Photo-Credits Are Listed By Time-Line)
CONTENTS OF CLASS The Openess of the Ode Concept Oshoosi’s Natural Habitats Oshoosi’s Spiritual Habitats Oshoosi In Aiye: His Animal Familiars Oshoosi Becomes A Hunter Oshoosi’s Roles In Civil Society How Oshoosi Got To Be An Herbalist Ode In Yorubaland What Is The Time And Place Of Oshoosi’s Origin Oshoosi’s Connection To His Friend Oshun Oshoosi’s and Oshun’s Lexicon Are Connected An Aside: Apetibi Concept in KMT—Possibiliites Oshoosi-like Neters In KMT’s Ta Merri and Nubia’s Ta Seti Regions In Ancient History Oshoosi In Brasil
OSHOOSI VIDEO GLOSSARY AND LEXICON USED THEREIN
________________________ *All terms that have an underscore beneath the letter, means that the “S” should be pronounced “Sh.”
**The acronym “IDYL” stands for the official “A Dictionary of the Yoruba Language,” Univ. of Ibadun, Oxford Univ., Univ Press Limited, 1979. Pagination refers to either the English-Yoruba or the Yoruba-English sections. The acronym ALWTG refers to "A Life With The Gods," Wenger, S. Perlinger, Austria. Finally, some of these terms are clarified in the outstanding works of the honorable John Mason, olo-Obatala, and practitioner-scholar of Yoruba religion in New York city and the superlative Yoruba spirituality website entitled "Chief Yagbe Awolowo Onilu: Heritage--The Vision Continues." ACHE'LU (CUBA) -Police (olopa) as guardians of the ashe (the wealth and law ) of the town. Sometimes they spy on the Orisha community; even get initiated. Why do people spend so much money to get initiated, they ask? Let's see! ADA -A machete.ADELE -Temporary spokesman and house master when the master is on-leave, p.7 IDYLADAHUNSHE -Herbalist, p. 88, IDYLAGBAGUN -War council; one who incites war, p. 11 IDYLAGBAROSO FUN-MI -Spokesman for me, p. 175 IDYLAGBASA -Solid rock spirit (the spirit in the otan); p.11, IDYL AGBONIREGUN -Title of the Orunmila, p.13 IDY AKU -A ghost AKUDAYA -The spirit of a dead and buried person who returns to Earth as the same person but in a different locality with a new family and destiny; until they are discovered by someone who recognizes them; in which case, they'll up and dissapear again. AJAGUN -Soldier, jagunjagun, p. 23 IDYL AJALORUN -A fighter sent from Heaven; thus, a fighter of unknown origin (Mason, Essays. p.56). AKEDE FEYO -Crier, herald, public spokesman, p.27 IDYL ALA -Dreams ALAFIN -A king of Oyo, “Owner of the palace,” p. 30 IDYLL ALAFOSE -A diviner; or an ITALERO in Afro-Cuban Santeria-Lucumi. One who has the power of spiritually potent speech; the ashe lenu (the ashe of the tongue).AJAGUN -Soldier, jagunjagun, p. 23 IDYL ANISE (FENNEL) -Used for purification baths, de-odorization, ewe for Osayin. ANJANU -Dead and malevolent spirits that are problems, and have never made it back to Heaven. APANIA -An assassin, p. 38 IDYLAPET -A KMT neter who is a nurse, a Hippo-headed Taweret; Nurturer/Crib/Ark for the young and for Wise Words. She was replaced by Anubis-- a Romanized word for Tarewet. See Wikipedia for discourse on Apet and Taweret. Also see "A Book of Beginnings," Gerald Massey, London: Williams and Norgate, 1881. Like Oshun in the Orisha-Ifa religion (i.e., like her Apetibi servants of Ifa for whom the words (Odu) being the newborn babies that are carried and nurtured in an ark or contain- er. ARONI & AAJA -A fairy, p. 71 IDYL; A mystical ally of an Osayin herbalist. He is aided by AAJA (the whirlwind that takes hunter adahunse herbalists novices into the deep forest for years of training). ARONIMOJA -Elemental spirits, in igbo, (see URL “Oodua…”), see OSAYIN and ARONI, below. ASHA -Falcon, p. 71 IDYL Also, this word means "tradition." ASHE -The vital power that creates, births, nurtures , enlivens andputs and end to things. Also this means an authoritative (lawful) affirmation or command.ASHE ILU / ACHELU -Law enforcers of the Town, pp. 45 and 117 IDYL. -Police (olopa) as guardians of the ashe (the wealth and law ) of the town. Sometimes they spy on the Orisha community; even get, initiated. "Why do people spend so much money to get initiated, they ask themselves? Let's see!"ASHO’FUN’FUN - Cloth that is white p. 46 and 213 IDYLATA MATASHE - Owner of the riverbank; Also ONIBEBE.ATAOJA -Head priest of Oshun cult. ATERE -The container to store Ifa palm nuts--"ikin." ATUNWAYE -ReincarnationAWON / EGBE OLODE -Grouping or lodge of the owners of the outside, hunters , p. 166 IDYLAWUN, IJAPA -Tortoise, p. 192 IDYL; Turtle has Eshu-like "court-jester" qualities as well as being stealthy.COBOCLOS -Brasilian creole person; mixed African and native Brasilian Indians. Wikipedia.COPTIC LANGUAGE -Language of Eithiopia related to Greek and Old Egyptian. See https://en.wikipedia.org. EBORA, THE -They are the four warrior orisha: Eleegua, Ogun, Oshoosi & Osun in Cuban Lucumi. In some parts of Africa, they include Obatala and Shango. Secondly, the meaning of "the Ebora" is also the ritual ebbo or offerings done to invoke their protection against malevolent forces and spirits who may be given to making reprisals against a person. In this sense, the term comes from “ori sa e ebbo ra”; see Awo Falokun, in "Ebora"--his book)--i.e., 'the ebora' as a ritual offering. To my way of thinking, I would include the orisha Oya as among the Ebora. -The third meaning combines the first two. "The Ebora" refers to a collection of Heavenly spirits that serve as advocates and intermediaries between groups of people, on the one hand, and Olodumare, on the other; i.e., they are "the protectors." In times of community peril, the priests of the "Ebora cults" propritiate them by making offerings and sacrifices, in special locations, to their staffs (opa ebora). The male office-holders are led by an OBARO and assisted by the Ojoye, the Orota, the Aworo, and a group of female officiants called the "OFOSI" guild who provide chants, songs, prayers and dances for certain ceremonies--as "wives of the Ebora"-- for festivities, and for title promotions and funerals within the cult or egbe. The Eb- ora priests may make use counter-measures like the fashioning and invocation of the SIGIDI (an image made of mud) " that protects, avenges, and attacks" adversaries when propritiated (see "Traditional Religions In West Africa," E.A.Adegbola, p. 62). EGBE -One's tempermental 'soul mates' who remain in Heaven; may become your "spirit guides"; not orisha; something like your Heavenly "frat" brothers or sister sorors. The relationships may be character-types & roles that define their membership in an egbe. One makes pledges and promises to them before coming to Aiye. Some of them may come to Earth on their own accord or may follow or precede you in order to aid you as allies. You will feel an affinity to them (for no reason that you can articulate). They are not egungun nor orisha. They are a different kind of spirit (alasheku). They are like your characterolog- ical / social role of type or "template" of personality (similar to your iporin; your ori-ideal "Head" template that remains in Heaven to await your reincarnation cycles). In Yorubaland their groups are called "awon egbe orun." They can be a source of emotional troubles and mental illness if not propritiated along with one's Ori. They are a source of your feelings and emotional intelligence. Loyalty to them is expected, lest your spirit guides become your spirit enemies. They can be your social role type: "marketeers,""jagun," "intellectuals," etc. peers that share a similar temperment. Investigations into who and what are your "Heavenly egbe(s), can be very useful in understanding one's personality dimensions apart from from one's ori (head, intelligence and destiny or life plot). And good for those whose egungun pedigree has been lost, as well. The members of one's Heavenly egbe(s) are not "orisha" nor "egungun," per se, but are LIKE one's tempermental-social role "eguns." Finding out about one's egbe(s) and one's predominant clan ancestry is part of one's "roots readings"; again, particularly for those African diasporans whose true egungun (natal family ancestors) are obscrure or totally unknown. "Egbe" can be singular or plural. "Who" is your "egbe" that shows up in life here on Earth sometimes as a singular person? Who is your egbe that shows up as a "spirit guide." Versus: "What " is your Heavenly egbe,""lodge society" or "affinity" group?" When one propritiate one's egbe, are you making offerings to the lodge? To a "spirit guide?" Or to a Heavenly "frat" brother or sister in the form of one that lives here on Earth sometimes. Offer doves to them (and other things) as they are associated with stable auto-eroti- icism (i.e., the ashe of egbe is self-sustaining). One's egbe is one's true spiritual home-- personally on Earth as well as in Heaven. EGBE OLODE -Mutual aid society of hunters, p. 68 IDYL EGUN -Dead spirit of some sort; not an ancestral one. Bones. Thorn, bramble-prickle, p. 74 IDYL . EGUNGUN -Direct lineage ancestral spirits of a family, lodge, egbe, awon or group. ELA -The source of light and insight into the Universe; the precursor to Ifa . He is the husband of Odu; parents (progenitors) of Ifa; created "space" and separated light(ness) from dark(ness)./ Allows insight, therefore. Works like an arrow hitting the bulls eye; but does so unconsciously (connects the dots); Eureka! Rev- elation! ELA OMO OSIN -Ela, the child of the ruler (Olodumare); like Jesus Christ ("But through me, no man enters the Kingdom...(of insight)." The primordial orisha that first separated light from darkness and created the faculty of human insight. ELA OMO OYIGIYIGI --Child of the 'Rock of Ages' ELEEDA -The creative aspect of God's intellect; imparted into man through atari portal. Inseperable from Ori, or "Eleri." ELEGBE -Psychic people ("mediums" or "eleguns") that can see ghosts ("oku") like the male newly dead men's spirits who show up at the door of the Ogun priest's door sill to collect their buried penis's foreskin that was cut off at birth using that oloola's knife--the obeke. ALWTG, p. 159. ENIYAN -Humanity. Humanity is an orisha ! EPA -The funeral of the hunters; ijala chants are uttered, lots of talismans used. ESE (ELESESE) IFA -The ordered poetry verses of Ifa, p. 80 IDYL ESHU (ESU) -The primal forces of unpredicatability in the world. Eshu is the "slave of Obatala"; companion of Ifa; Eshu's are male and female; they contain all of the ashe in the world; the sources of "Eleegua(s)"; which are always male. Eshu is co-equal to Olodumare. Praying to Olodumare is useless. To get results go to Eshu and orisha. Eshu taught Orunmila how to do divination.GBEDE GBELEKE -Intelligent one exalts, makes conspicuous p.96 IDYL GBONO -Packet of powerful juju made from a lion's (or other powerful beasts') heart, secretions, a canine tooth and worn around the neck for that animals fierce "oro" power. ALWTG, p. 159. GIDIGBO -Fight like Large fierce animal 93 and 98, IDYL GUBASA -MacheteIBANTE / BANTE -An apron p.102 IDYLIDEKOSEOAKE -A proper nameIDEKUN -Snare or trap p.106, IDYLIDILE -Family or household, P.106 IDYLIFE ELU -An ancient grouping in Ile Ife, proper nameIFE ODAYE - An ancient grouping in Ile Ife; proper nameIGBO -Forest grove, p. 111 IDYL IGI ELEGUN -Bramble Bush, Tumble weed bushp. 23 IDYL IGOKE -An awakeing into a higher spiritual level.IHIN -A story of good tidings, p. 112 IDYLIJA AJAKU -Knife, p.102 Ibadun Dictionary Yoruba Language IDYL IJAPA -Is the Eshu of the Earth, a tortoise who is 'funny' as he makes futile man's attempts to cheat death and avoid returning to the earth. But he has ariku or longevity. He creates and then solves "fixes" and may die himself in so doing. He's comical. He succeeds in all he does, and he does and eats everything. He is like a court jester. He has an osu--a single tuft of hair. IKOLE ORUN -The land of Heaven IKOLE AIYE -The land of Earth ILARI -A king’s messenger; the messengers of Shango, p. 116 IDYL ILE’KUN -Are the spirits that live under the surface of the Earth (Orisha Mo’ile] They surface every 15 years; hitching rides on the backs of the orishas under the Earth who live in the domain of Orisha Oko. They appear when we open the Earth. And this is one reason that we feed the Earth periodically. They cannot be stopped; but must be appeased. Spirits come in through holes in the Earth and Ozone layer.ILEDI -A private house for elders to meet, p. 116 IDYL ILE'KUN -Spirits that live in the Earth under its surface (Orisha Mo'le); They hitch rides on the backs of Earth Orishas.IRAN or OJURAN -(a) possession trance, p. 192 IDYL; usually "cool" among Yoruba (except in except in pidan spectacle) because human personality sits atop a volcano.IRUNMOLE -Primordial orishas that came to earth. ISHE-ORO -The symbolic death of a new initiated before initiation; taken 'to the river.' ISHESHE ALAGBA AIYE --"Yoruba religion"; 'The great works of our elders.'; 'Ilu Enia Dudu'--the lineage or heritage of black humanity.' ; ISOORE -Beneficence ITAN , ITAN -A story of legendary history. A discourse, horizon, from tan meaning ‘to spread, reach, open-up, illuminate, or shine on; historical legend that expounds on someone or group and disentangle (from Eniyan: The Nature of Being Human,by K.Noel Amherd (Master’s Thesis, Cal. State Hayward, 2001. ITAN ATOWODOWO -A legendary story: p. 126 IDYLITAN-PATAKIN -A legendary story of importance; p. 193 IDYL IMO -Knowledge ISIN -Worship, service, reverence.IWA -The existing character, p.127, 69 IDYL IWA KIRI -The hunt or quest for good character.IWA PELE -A character of abundance; good character increases, p. 194, IDYL: Possesses Agbon (wisdom), Imo (understanding), and Oye (knowledge) from Olorun gifts to the world. Means “gentle character,” IWA 'RE'RE -An astute character. IWEJU -A mystic vision. p. 128 IDYL. IWOSE, AWOSE, AFOSE, ALAFOSE -Diviner who sees patterns (an "italero" in Cuba)., p. 50 IDYL IYÁ -Mother IYÀ -Wickedness / wicked woman IYÁMÍ -Our "Holy Mothers"; the AJÉ IYÀMÌ -Wicked women and men who have misappropriated the power of the Ajè--they are. psychological terrorists. The Osho are men who use mystic power for good (sor- cerers). The Aje are women who have appropriated mystic power for good. White Ajé are cool and "visible,"(they do good as protectors of women). Red and Black iyàmì do evil--the bitches of doom--as "hot" or as "invisible" ones, respectively. They are not orisha, not ajagun, but are "neutral" (i.e., will not yeild to rationality, nor compromise). And they will eat one from inside the intestines outward. They will block all of your plans, goals, and progress. They are unpredictable because they came to the Earth through the odu Osa. By contrast, human ajé (real women) do good, and officiate some of the most sacred and august ceremonies in Yoruba religion. JAGUN-JAGUN -Soldier, p. 130 IDYL JE'FA -Supplication to one's Olori or guardian angels; one's olori. JUU JUU -A curse of chaos.KETU NATION -Largest of Candomble sects, Wikipedia.KI KI (OLOKIKI) -A salute to a famous person, an oriki, pp. 142 and 172 , IDYL; a renowned one. KUVITO -Dead spirits (generally) among the Fon; the Alasheku or Anjanu among the Yoruba. LAYEWU -Egungun society of hunters.MACUMBA -Has the connotation of Brasilian “Palo”; WikipediaMOREMI AJASORO -Legendary woman defender of Ile Ife. OBINRIN -Female / woman O = One who Bin = sways Rin = walks (this is a gender noun). ODE -Hunter, outside, p.166 IDYLODEDE -Oriki for Oranmiyan, 2nd Alafin of Oyo; Ode ("ODDE" in Cuba) is synonomous with Oshoosi for all practical purposes.O DE DE -He who arrives (standing tall)ODIDERE -Parrot with ire (African Grey), p.166 IDYL ODODO -Righteousness ODU -A female orisha that is the mother of the sixteen "Olodu" or containers. categories or types of experiences in life. The "Word"; if it can be named it can be predicted by Odu.ODUDUWA -Legendary founder of modern Yoruba culture is a male. But is also a female also a primordial orisha who usurped Obatala's role in creating the world when she found him drunk in the top of a palm tree. (She is "Odua" in Cuba).ODUDUWA / ODUA -The founder of the modern Yoruba nationality AND an irunmole orisha in Heaven; (He is male in Nigeria). In Cuba, he was subplanted by Odua (a female) irunmole who was the mother of Orisha-nla and (thereupon) all of the versions of the Obatala. "Oduduwa" means "the owner of our blackness" (our invisibility! ) and he and the progeny of Orisha-nla (as well as Oshun and Oshoosi) are considered "orisha 'fun'fun" or 'orisha of white cloth' (meaning cool-headed). (Think of an invisible spirit dressed in a white garment).OGBONI / OSUGBO -A lodge of wisdom and judiciousness p.179 IDYLOGBO-OFA -Victim of arrow shot OGBON -Wisdom, "smarts," cunning, skill.OGEDE / IGEDE - Incantation, p167 IDYL OJUBO -Tumbleweed altar for Oshoosi.OKANBI -First Alafin of Old Oyo (some accounts have Oranmiyan as first oba of Oyo and Shango as the fourth). OKU -A corpse; see "Aku," supra. OKUNRIN -Male / Man O = One who Kun = strength Rin = walks (This is a gender nouns).OLODUMARE NYAMBE -A title of God; of OlorunOLOGUN -A war chief, p.172 IDYL OLOGUNBE -A chief of palace guards, p. 172 IDYOLORUGBO -The martyr son of Moremi Ajasoro; chief of the medicine of truth; sometimes seen as “Jesus Christ.” from babalawo Ifabiyi (see http://oodua.com/top-300- Yoruba-spiritual …etc.) OLORUN--ELEDA--OLODUMARE -The great cosmic triad in Yoruba religion.OLOTUMENE LAROYE -The hunter that help to found Osogbo; "Laro"; consort of Oshun.OLUDAMORAN -Counselor, p. 43, IDYL OLUODE -Chief of the hunters; Ogun; highest title of Ogun cult in Oshogbo. OOGUN, OGUNGUN --Powerful medicine; no magic is involved. ORANMIYAN -Second alafin of Old Oyo (Odede)ORE’RE’RE -A vista; an overview ORE / ORERE -A long view or vista, p. 178 IDYLORELUERE -A legendary leader of the Ile Ife city before Oduduwa's arrival there in the 11th century. ORI -Head, Intellect, Destiny (in three parts: AKUNLEYAN (life plot or script), AKUNLEGBA (one's resources & conditions in life), and the AYANMO (one;s immutables like parentage or gender). ORI ODE -One’s persona.ORION -The great hunter in the sky constellation; a personification of Osiris and Oshoosi; “Ode’run” in Yoruba, vs. Ode Aiye (Oshoosi). ORI-OSUN (OLORISUN) -Oriki for Oshun; owner of fountainhead, spring or source, p. 173 IDYL ORIKI / ORILE -A family name (praise name and itan), p. 178 IDYLORI'RUN ("ORUN") -Means the source of the Ori ("Orun" does not mean "Heaven"; that is "Ikole"). OSAYIN, OSONYIN, OSEYIN He is the orisha of plants' ashe. aka "ARONI" who stands on one leg like a plant stalk. As an "osun" staff, it can never be laid down because it would be a dead plant. Osayin is the child of Orisha Oko. OSAHI -Similar to KMT “Sahu” and “Osayin”; see “Ozain Mystery of the Congo and Yoruba,” Oba Anthony Canti, p.43, 2013). OSAINISTA -“Span-‘nago” (Spanish-Anago) for a ritual herbalist) an 'OLOSAYIN.'OSOGBO -Principal city of Oshun State, Nigeria; sacred to Oshun. The founder was Olotumeni Laro(ye), an Oshun consort. Oshogbo is an oriki of Oshun, meaning that she too is a sorceress of a wooded area. He is Oshoosi-like. OSHU -A gathering OSHUGBO -The word also means old ancient wisdom (Mason, Essays, p. 6). OSHOGBO -Capital of Osun area, NIgeria. From "Osho-igbo" (enchanted forest) and "Osusu- igbo" (Oshun's grove). OSU -"The source"; the Osun. The Sources of Spirits are: 1. Primordial cosmos, 2. East (Ila Orun), 3, West (Iwo Orun), 4.North (Ariwa), 5. South (Guusu), 6. Celestial Heavens, 7., Earth (Aiye). 8. Ile Ife, 9. Ocean, 10., Rivers, 11. 400 "plus 1" from the Left, (12) 200 "plus 1" from the Right and 13, the Ori-Osun from or the source of the Head. All "osuns' protect the consciousness of Life and mark the place or source be- tween the Ori's divinity-mindedness cosciousness of Life, on the one hand, and Olodumare / Olorun (God Almighty), on the other. This is a phenomenon of awarenss and not so much one of spoken communication. OSUN -A metal statuette (with a rooster atop it), an object, drawing, painting of figure that is that is a direct link between one's "ori" (head) and Olofi. The connection is not through speech, song or prayer. It is a metaphysical connection. It is a devide for warning of an imminent mortal danger if it is inexplicably found lying on its side. Large ones sit on the property or igbodu of a babalawo, but smaller ones--considered one of the ebora warriors along with Eleegua, Ogun and Oshoosi, sit atop the highest object in an olorisha's house. They can also be painted or drawn figures (a firma or veve) on the floor in front or an altar or on the Head of an initiate during initiation. It sig- nifies any place where a direct interaction between a Head and Olofi is to take place. It may also be a large glass of water that sits on an ancestral alter and can used for water-gazing meditation. The statuette may be left on the divination mat (estera) momentarily when the diviner has to get up to do something important for a brief period of time.OSUSU -A grove of trees, p.179 IDYL OTITO - Truth SAH / SAHU -Moral core of Osiris as the three belt stars in the constellation of Orion. Sahu unites the spiritual and the mental processes; the core Osirian morality. Also called "Osahu" in KMT and may be related to "Osayin" in Yoruba religion. SETILU -One of the leaders of Ile Ife before the arrival of Oduduwa in Ile Ifen Nigeria. TIMI & TIMOYIN -Timi is the Oshoosi-like general of Old Oyo, but Timoyin is the "Ogun" of Oshogbo. He chased Oshun's antelope into the woods where it becasme a tree. He then burned the tree and threw it into the Oshun river. This caused the destruction of her indigo pots. But she became sexually reconciled with him (Ogun) eventually after bringing him out of the forest with honey). The Ataoja, chief Oshun priest, of Oshun area is the incarna- tion of Timoyin.TA MERRI -Ancient KMT or EgyptTA SETI -Ancient Nubia/ Kush/Cush eventually Meroe (in modern Sudan; the land of the origin of “Set”; not "from the western desert," nor from the Mediterranean coast). UFON -A character flaw. VODUN, A -A "Lwa" or "Loa" (or orisha) among the Fon of Benin. Possibly from Yoruba's "Oluwa" (God).YEMU / YEMBO -The mother or Oshoosi and Ogun in Africa; but in Cuba, she is Yemoja Ibu Inya, (from odu Odi-Oyeku) and also Yemoja Okute is their mother there in the odu Ogbe-Irete. (See "Patakin," by David Brown p.151). OSHOOSI: HUNTER, WARRIOR, SORCERER AND GENTLEMAN THE VIDEO SCRIPT (THE WRITTEN SCRIPT’S BEGINNING, BELOW, IS AT 12’09” ON THE VIDEO TIME-LINE)
"Now, let’s address a few of the simpler depictions of the orisha Oshoosi as a prototype because the uninitiated among us will likely need more familiarity with his basic characteristics. First, according to legend, he prefers to live in the forest where he is regarded as a hunter, a sorcerer, a wizard, and a woodsman; though he is also known as an orisha of peace and philanthropy while in more social milieus.
He is also considered a cool-headed orisha who enjoys the favor of Obatala, Ogun, and all of the other Orisha (even our Holy Mothers, the Iyami). In the secular world, he is beloved by women and children, and respected by all man- ners of men. His symbols include bows, arrows, cow bells, and handcuffs.
When he is in the bush, he dresses like it, and often wears his IBANTE (“bante”) apron over his loin cloths or trousers. In his role as a hunter, he supplies the settlements and village markets with commodities from the bush; including the various plants that can be found there for the practice of “OSAYIN—i.e., the art of the ritual use of plants for healing and for self-defense, named after the oris- ha Osayin (or ARONI).
This orisha, Oshoosi, is in the class of orisha called ASHO’FUN’FUN--i.e., a cool-headed orisha of white cloth. His actual natal parentage is from an orisha named Yemu or Yembo, his mother, and a deified ancestor, Oranmiyan (or Odede), his father, respectively. But he is considered the spiritual son of Obatala, ruler of the orisha. And, as such, he was appointed to be the spokesman for Obatala. For his spirtual father Obatala, his advocacy role is that of the GBEDE GBELEKE (‘binding upliftment comes to exalt and make conspicuous’) and his speech is that of an AKEDE FEYO (which means ‘spokesman who speaks with fidelity’). He speaks for Obatala in much the same way and with the same authority as do the ILARI priest for the OBA Shango!
He and Ogun also serve as the palace guards for Obatala; his OLOGUNBE and ADELE. And when he speaks for “Baba,” i.e., Obatala, his recitations of Obatala’s pronouncements are clean-cut and straight to the point (AGBAROSO FUN-MI / ABEDE).
Finally, he is regarded as a tracker, a bounty hunter, and a town-gate guard (a BA’ILE) or sentry which is a role that he inherited from a warrior version of his spiritual father Obatala (the road, camino or ona called Ajaguna) who, it is said, once rode horse- back, wielded a cutlass, and controlled the gates to the town. The Guardian of the Gate in ancient culture was also a tax or toll collector, of sorts, from people who would come into town or into its markets.
But, when living as a hunter—which is how most people in the religion envision him--he is said to go hunting with only one arrow! And, moreover, “as soon as Oshoosi thinks, the deed is done!”; meaning that he can be that swift. [I have personally witnessed this many times following prayer and ebbo to him].
Further, Oshoosi is venerated in Nigeria where his annual festivity is presided over by none less than the Ooni of Ile Ife who, himself, is the head of the religious orders that are based in the spiritual capital of Orisha-Ifa religion in Nigeria --Ile Ife (the home of love and cooperation). He has a beautiful shrine there in Ile Ife that is replete with an archer statue sitting on its roof. And his close attendants are all priests of Obatala who venerate a larger-than-life stone figure of a human head, ceremonially transporsported in a white ark or basket, and addressed as “Oshoosi, the Living Stone.”
And, he is highly respected in Cuba as well as in Brazil (where he is the patron deity of the “Ketu nation” of Orisha worshipers in its Candomble-Macumba version of Yoruba religion there. His colors in Cuba are amber and blue (in La Habana) and amber and violet (in Matanzas province). While his colors in Brazil are teal (a bluish-green hue) and amber. These colors are appropriate for the camouflage needed in forested areas that have inconsistent sunlight penetrating the forest tree canopy, and for use in shrub and grassland areas .Oshoosi is a hunter who hunts truth, justice and personal ashe. [
Finally, though most people do not know it, Oshoosi is the founder of all social institutions that involve or include the assemblage and sequestration of people and animals: For example: hospitals, zoos, jails, and churches. Indeed, even the practice of congreg- ational religion itself owes its very existence to this orisha—Oshoosi. But before we go any further on ideas of Oshoosi’s connec- tion to confinement, let’s look first at the role of “openness” in the life of Oshoosi and tho- se hunters who have been inspired by his ashe.
THE OPENESS OF THE ODE CONCEPT Yoruba culture the term ode is applied to hunters in the following sense: First, the term itself means “hunter.” But more importantly, ode implies an “openness” of character and functioning in open spaces, generally. This is why the half-gourds, the pots, or the ceramic vessels that the sacred tools and rocks of the Orisha (the AG- BASA) that the hunter-warrior class of orisha that they “live” in are never-covered vessels; half-gourds or large bowls (unlike the tureens or soperas that are covered with lids and in which all of the other orisha are stored). In the Afro-Cuban Orisha-Ifa world, the orisha ODDE is seen as the father of "Ochosi" and a separate orisha. This probably arises because of the "nickname" (oriki) Odede which belongs to his mythologcal father, Oranmiyan, the second alafin (ruler) of old Oyo kingdom. "Odede" was the founder of the Yoruba concept of "psychology." An acceptable variation of these myths is to regard and treat "Oshoosi" and "Odde" as avatars of each other].
As mentioned, the idea of ODE also refers to the hunters’ “openness of character.” They, like all of the war- riors, are not closed-off nor possessed of “hidden agendas.” In this respect, the concept of ORI ODE comes to mind and is roughly equivalent to the Latin term persona that we used to describe a person’s “public character.” And “open character” does not mean that all hunters are extroverted by nature. In some cases, even though they appreciate and tolerate reclusiveness, they may still be open to the ideas and needs of other people. But while their spirits may openly exist here in this world, they are yet, at once, largely inac- cessible to it. The idea of the inaccessibility of hunter-warriors will be commented upon, again, at the close of this video.
This warrior and those infused with his spirit are possessed of thoroughness in his planning for maneuvers in this the real, secular, world.
And, similarly, all of the hunter’s affairs in the supernatural world must be set in order before the hunt, as well, in order to ensure its success and, afterwards, in order to insure the welfare of the hunters themselves. Toward this end, the traditional hunter invokes the skills of DIVINATION (IWOSE, AWOSE) to obtain an overview of hunting campaign to come. In fact, the original IWOSE, AWOSE diviners in this world were hunters. In order to know what had occurred, what was continuing to occur, and what the future of a certain area might hold in terms of hunting prospects. The hunter could divine by “reading” with the bones of animals, their skat, or the entrails of animals. Also, they would infer the future by observing he behavior of animals in the im-mediate area (for example tracks or unusual activities of birds, monkeys, and insects). Information deduced and confirmed through divination was as invaluable for success and self-preservation to the hunter as were his investigatory acts in the secular world such as tracking, observing broken twigs, branches, patches of fur, animal bedding, or newly laid animal paths, or signs of recent animal combat.
Divination would be concluded with the recitation of OGEDE or IGEDE (incantations) and the performance of ebbo (offerings) to supernatural forces to insure success. And, in Yorubaland, hunters were also trained to make charms, amulets, and strong medicine (OOGUN) for its healing effect- iveness and for self-defense. These powerfully protective medicines are required because the IGBO (the woods or jungle) is filled with Eshus, Ajogun, the Aje (red, black and white iyami) and various elemental forest spirits called the ARONIMOJA. Isolated hunter-warriors will always find the ORE’ RE’RE (long view or vista) useful and div- ination is the way to see it.
Next, generally, hunters were always mindful of the totem animals that were supernaturally attached to their clans and their guilds (i.e., their egbes). And can draw on them for strength. And, with Oshoosi, there are also specific animals associated with him—his “animal familiars” or avatars—which will be commented on later.
Oshoosi, in addition to being a hunter, is also a warrior or Ajagun (or Ologun). As such engages in defensive and offensive operations for himself and for his familiars because he is a master of strategy.
For sure, Oshoosi is an accomplished strategist. He confers with others in his guild or awon, the Egbe Olode, as well as with community and marketplace leaders on when and how to plan hunting trips and parties. And, when necessary, as a settlement’s OLUDAMORAN or consejero—that is counselor--he offers strategies on when and how to move groups of people to better, more plentiful, safer and more tolerable locations. Thus, his strategic skills would serve him in a leadership role as a hunter.
But these same skills also serve to enhance his (and their) effectiveness as a warriors against any kind of adversary. Strategy, simply involves three things the control of which must be sought at all times. These variables must be addressed in the same order: Successful strategy requires the mastery of Tempo, Position and Strength. Whether on the hunt for animals or adver- saries, the child of Oshoosi pursues this living algorithm.
The first variable is the control of TEMPO (timing or initiative). That is, the hunter must be in control of the timing of things so that tif he adversary or prey is reacting at all, it is always reacting to them—the hunters--and not the other way around --lest the hunter become the hunted. In the control of timing, Oshoosi may elect to be painfully slow like his avatar the Tortoise, and yet, in a flash, act light- ing fast, like his avatar the falcon. Next in importance for the strategist, is the control of the variable of physical (and psychological) POSITION.
This means that the hunters must place themselves in advantageous locations relative to their prey. For example, favoring, where possible, the high ground; favoring places where there is adequate cover, and favoring a position that is downwind of the game of interest to the hunter, and so on. In the realm of Oshoosi’s spirit as a living metaphor, a junior person always keeps his or her head below the level of head of a senior person when showing acts of respect. This is a positional variable that must be at- tended to in civil behavior. Since, Oshoosi is reputed the only orisha that can “astral-travel” (i.e., go airborne spying on what he chooses to reconnoiter down below), so he has no problems putting himself in great tactical positions. And, finally, the last remaining element for the hunter to acquire and control is STRENGTH (or know how to nullify it in regard to the adversary). Strength refers to the availability of material advantages, resources and power. The spirit of Oshoosi has great endurance and when he shoots his arrow or long-gun he does not miss. This is because hunters and warriors are taught to conserve resources whenever possible. Accuracy, planning and effectiveness all make this possible.
The most important things to remember about a hunter-warrior’s concept of strategy is that the three factors listed here must always be addressed in the correct order: Tempo, Position and Strength). Note that these principles apply in all walks of life and to multitudes of people who’s hunting in life has nothing to do with trapping or killing animals.
Deception is another indispensable faculty for Oshoosi: So, let’s take a look at camouflage (no pun intended). The idea of cam- ouflage was one of the main lessons learned from nature itself. Hunters, human or other- wise, use three kinds of camouflage: (1) "MASQUERADE" (where the subject--predator, prey, or observer--can be seen by others but looks like something else), (2) "CRYPSIS” (where the subject blends into the back- ground such that it cannot be "seen" at all, though it is there) and (3) "MIM- ICRY" (where the subject can be seen but mimics another kind of animal or animal appendage so as to fool an observer, prey or victim). These are some of the simple acts of deception among scores of ot- hers. For example, padded footwear can conceal sound and scent, and deodorization may be achieved through smoking clothing over burning wood and using garlic or anise on one’s body. These are forms of camouflage too. But while I am presenting them here as literal tactics, it is, again, just as impor- tant to think of them as psychological metaphors useful in our social interactions. OSHOOSI’S NATURAL HABITATS What are his natural and spiritual habitats? This is easy to answer: He may be found in the wooded forests (the IGBO), and at the riverbanks and lakes . He may also be found in caves, in the grasslands, on the mountain tops or in the deserts. And where we find hunters, we find fires; the mastery of which was essential for enhanced nutrition, self-defense, tool-making and spiritual comfort. But we do not stop there: Are not fishermen hunters? Indeed so. Thus, the spirit of Oshoosi may also be found in those working the rivers and lakes and working the fishing occupations of the sea coasts.
The in-dwelling spirit of Oshoosi also may be found in his devotees; especially if they experience possession by him in cerem- onial actions and in combat (INI) and in (GIDIGBO) a martial arts approach taught to the Egbe Olode and Egbe Ajagun or Ologun. Incidentally, there is a female road or type of Oshoosi, that protects female warriors. Though the specific roads of Oshoosi are not addressed in the initiations of Oshoosi priests up here in the USA, a few are specified in Cuba, and a larger number in Brasil. And finally, his spirit pervades the secular hunters of Africa, i.e., it pervades the EGBE OLODE, i.e., the hunters’ lodge societies in which their characteristics as a group or type of man as well as training obtain.
OSHOOSI'S SPIRITUAL HABITATS An orisha may exist and manifest in any of the following ways—often simultaneously:
(1) as the spirit of the orisha in the DEITY ITSELF or in an Egun, that itself was the OLORI or “crown” of that person in life. (2) as a force of or in Nature. (3) as the AGBASA spirit of the orisha in its ROCKS and SHELLS; where the spirit of the orisha is held by the devotees of that orisha the otans and cowrie shells in the possession of the members of the ile, idile, or rama of an initiate and his or her peers. The agbasa are instrumental- ities for reproduction and speech. (4) as an indwelling spirit within totem animals that give rise to a family animal “nickname” (an ORILE as distinct from a community-known ORIKI). For example, calling a kid “Rabbit,” or “Spider.” (5) as a deity that lives in an egbe, an awon, a rama or an ile (“a house”) of devotees. (6) as the spirit of an orisha (or an Egun that, while living, had received Oshoosi) when it takes possession of a person. (7) as the spirit of the orisha in the “crown” or ori or “HEADS” of its devotees—i.e., in the Heads of the members of its priesthood on an ongoing daily basis as the oludamaron for that person’s ori. (8) as the spirit of the orisha in the persons of the storied hunters in the Yoruba FOLKTALES and cultural history (e.g., in their profiles from the ESE (poetry verses) and ITAN or IHIN (parables and allegories) of Ifa, AND (9) as the spirit of the orisha when it has incarnated human beings who are not religious initiates but who function in life as Hunters (though their game and prey that they seek to take may have nothing to do with animals per se. This most often occurs even though they do not conceptualize the spirit of the orisha as the one that is helping to guide them because they simply do not know).
OSHOOSI IN AIYE: HIS TOTEM ANIMAL FAMILIARS In addition to clan totems, Oshoosi also has animal avatars the names of which he sometimes bears as an orile or informal fam- ily nickname. They ate his friends from the Earth. Let’s start with the DEER (or deer-like four-leggeds in the African context). Among others, the deer can see “light” in the ultraviolet section of the electromagnetic spectrum. The deer also serves as an avatar for Obatala when he appears to Oshoosi as his father ! There is an itan apataki that depicts Oshoosi, who believed that he did not know who was his father, encountering a deer in the forest. He tried in vain to shoot the buck with his arrows, but to no avail. Finally, after the deer repeatedly sang a song to Oshoosi saying that he was his father, he finally revealed himself, declaring that he, Obatala , was his (spiritual) father.. He said that even the leaves of a tree had the Earth and the waters of the as a mother and father; evefryone has someone to whom they belong. (See "Patakin," pp. 141-142, by David Brown, Eguin Kolade (2022) The next great avatar for Oshoosi, is the PARROT; especially the ODIDERE. It has been said that parrots are like little people wrapped in feathers. It is his parrot who knows and interprets Oshoosi’s OGEDE or IGEDE incantations. And when his parrots die, there are special ritual songs and incantations for them. Next, without doubt, comes his icon the Hawk or Falcon (ASHA). This is the image of the bird that expends so little energy floating on air currents (hunters are specialists in conserving energy) and then, on a moment’s notice, and from a mile high in the sky, can transform itself into lethal winged-death with unerring ac- curacy like a hypersonic glide missile. This falcon, thus, is an avian arrow; sacred to Oshoosi.
Finally, in regard to the totem animals of the hunters’ guilds, next comes the Tortoise. So, this calls for a short story. “The TORTOISE (AWUN, IJAPA) was respected by all because the wood lived in a rough environment, it was crafty and ineffective. It used to be said that “the tortoise succeeds and everything he undertakes.” And it was said that it was rewarded with ongoing success because its deeds were good and effectively done. So, in his area there was a king who had a daughter that could neither hear nor speak. The tortoise one day approached the king and asked what reward he would bestow on him if he succeeded in making the girl speak? The king, told the tortoise that he would give him half of his palace if he so did. [I believe that this was in the presence of the girl who could neither see nor hear]. In any event, the tortoise briefly told the king of his plan.
After that, the tortoise took a jar of honey out into the woods. He put it at the base of a tree and then he went to hide somewhat deeper in the bush, but from where he could still see the jar of honey. In a short while the princess showed up at the base of the tree to take the drive honey, the tortoise ambled up behind her and smacked her lightly but startled her greatly. He then accused her of being a thief! And exclaimed that he now knew how his jaws of honey were being stolen.
According to the storyteller, the princess was so shocked that she immediately started to vocalizer indignant protests and invectives against Tortoise. After the tortoise had firmly tied a rope around her waist and drug her toward the palace, he kept taunting her. So, she continued berating him as well. That is, until they got back into the presence of the king—who was, there- upon, completely convinced of his daughter’s recovery. Whereupon, he quickly divided his palace into two parts, giving the tortoise his part of the palace and bestowing upon the tortoise an oriki (praise name or attribute) that says “Tortoise succeeds in everything he undertakes.” (I do not know the odu that contains this story, but it was first recorded about a hundred years ago. See Hall, H.U., “Some Gods of the Yoruba,” Penn Museum Journal, Volume VIII, number one, 1917).
In regard to some of the supernatural aspects of Oshoosi’s prototype, we also find that he is reputed to be an orisha (possibly the only one) that can engage in “shape shifting” and “astral trave.l” And this means that he (and when his devotees are in possession by him)—can zoom across the Heavens to spy down upon distant places. And it also means that he can transform himself into other animals or trees and then back again as needed. As you will recall, I spoke about his proficiency at camouflage as mim- icry a little earlier.
Most people, including most of those who are initiated to Oshoosi, do not know that one of his altars--a total and complete altar with nothing else needed--is the Tumble Weed or dried out Bramble Bush (IGI ELEGUN). All of the other orisha know that fighting Oshoosi is like fighting an octopus in the dark, or fighting one’s way out of the interior of a tumbleweed under a hot blazing sun or in the dead of a very dark night. Either way, the adage holds that “nobody fights with Oshoosi and wins!” It is hope- less because his victims are unable to evade him. And he can track them down even in their very dreams.
OSHOOSI BECOMES A HUNTER
Ogun is the true chief of the hunters. Nothing is successful without Ogun. But because of Ogun’s proclivity toward a “scorched earth policy” in many of his endeavors, it was Oshoosi who earned the title of the most skillful among the hunters. Here’s how that came to be—so…here’s another story.
In the odu Ogunda-Irosu, ‘Ogun’s approach to hunting involved unrestrained cutting, slashing and creating the destruction of whole swaths of the forest. Oshoosi saw this time and again and eventually proposed another approach to Ogun. He told him that his way was chasing all of the animals out of the forest and that no one was going to be successful in short order. By contrast he convinced Ogun to cut all of the vegetation out of the way to clear only paths. And then he told Ogun, while thanking him for the iron spearheads and arrowheads that he obtained, that he would do the hunting from thereon. And, following that, they became brothers forever thereafter.’ The Machete is the symbol of independence in the bush, and it belongs to Ogun (AND Oya). While the Bow and Arrow belong to Oshoosi. And both are used in hunting and the war knives belong to both of them.
OSHOOSI'S ORIKI OR "KI-KI" A really good way to grasp the orisha Oshoosi is to take note of his “KI KI”(oriki) praise names and titles. Ode (Hunter, chases, game and “openness”)
Odede (Hunter/ Who Arrives/(and) Puts On Shackles) Ode De De (The Hunter arrives standing tall)
Iba Oshoosi, olog arare (I salute Oshoosi master of himself).
Ode olorore (Hunter of abundance) Oshoosi Ode mata sele (Oshoosi, the shooting hunter does not miss). Ode ata matase onibebe (The owner of the riverbank) Olofa (Owner of Divine Archery) Osowusi (Osho the famous one) Ija tii ja iru erin (One that cuts the elephant's tail) Omo Osooro (Child of the Tradition of Wizardry) Osolokere (The forest magician or wizard) Oluwo igbo (The king of the forest) Akin nile, Akin loju ogun (At home,--he is known as the hero of the battle front)
Bi Oso o ti e le ja (If Oshoosi is a coward or fearful, O ti gbekele Ogun he depends on Ogun (iron)
Oshoosi ode mata (Oshoosi, do not shoot me) or (Hunter who never misses). Ya ku ra mbo f'eri oba (Oshoosi comes in to take for himself, the head and crown of a ruler). Osho Olofa (Oshoosi, the owner of one arrow that kills kan ata tu'gun many at the battlefront). Oshoosi Alaketu (Oshoosi, the king of Ketu (in Benin) Africa, and king of the Ketu "nation" in Brasil)
Enibumbu, Olodo-Odo, (I praise all your pools, rivers and your waters.) Olomi-omi; lba se...
Oshoosi, Oshoosi ire, (Sorcerer of the left hand, brings ode mata) brings good spotted medicine of the forest.)
Oshoosi peteru ni eni ti (Oshoosi is the owner of the riverbank) eba odo. EGBE AJAGUN OR AWON OLOGUN (The Warriors and the “Ebora Ritual”)
Let me clear up something about the warrior Oshoosi and the other warriors as well. Sometimes, they are collectively referred to as the Ebora. The term has been translated in two ways. “ORI SA E EBBO RA” means “the specific consciousness of the Spirits who bring the offering” (Awo Fatunmbi Falakun) and my own which is “the ori applies the medicine to bind that which is rotten and needs to perish.” However, it is the two practical meanings of the term that is more important for us today.
In our hemisphere, and especially Cuba, the first practical meaning refers to the three warriors or guerreros called: Eleegua, Ogun, Ochosi and Osun (consciousness) . They are “ebora.” But, in Africa this term “the ebora” also refers to the ritual invocations and inantations (OGEDE, IGEDE) of these warriors, including Shango and Obatala in Africa,in that part of a divination session where--after an orisha has been requested to and accepts the role of “standing-up to claim the offering—a protection by the warriors against any possible “blowback” for having done an EBBO that solves the problem he or she has brought to the mat. Why is this optional ritual wise to do?
That is because if there are malevolent forces that were causing the client the problems of concern, the original ebbo may only temporarily block them and their designs against the client. That is. they may yet not be through with him or her. So, is prudent to make sure that there is no negative retaliation coming one’s way for having thwarted the aims of one’ spiritual enemies.
Thus, the EBORA—seen this way--is not only the group of Elegua, Ogun and Oshoosi per se. Rather, it is an act or second small offering that is specifically given to “the ebora warriors” as an invocation seek- ing the rear-guard covering action or protection by them to prevent “blowback” from the original malevolent spirits. The actual egbe or awon names for a group of warriors is the EGBE AJAGUN or EGBE OLOGUN (or even the JAGUN-JAGUN). Caution is always warranted when contending matters in the supernatural sphere so that they do not spiral out-of-control in the secular world and, thus, end up requiring revolutionary solutions as the price for social justice and self-defense.
The orisha Oshoosi is an OLOGUN—i.e., as a warrior. The leadership skills of a warriors grow directly out of those required for being a hunter in most cases. (Though it is possible for some people to take on warrior roles without having first become proficient as a hunter). These fighters are sometimes aided by the orisha Aja (an Aroni / Osayin fairy and instructor in the herbs of the bush).
Indeed, one of the early roles that hunters had to play was to rid their areas and encampments of dangerous and nuisance animals,to the extent that they could. And, as noted before, they also became skilled in constructing barricades and corrals to protect themselves from, and to contain, otherwise not-yet-domesticated wild animals. Therefore, it was a simple transition, indeed, for these hunters to use the skills to intimidate, defeat, or enslave clan enemies.
When the Ebora met for a war council, it was called and AGBAGUN. Included in their training worthy skills of sniping, archery, marksmanship (OTA prn. “Aw ta”), tracking, using a war knife ((IJA AJAKU) and going into possession (INI) so as to be able to fight like a big strong, loud, animal (GIDIGBO). As a warrior, he is also capable of being considered a sniper (ATA MATASHE) and an assassin (an APANIA).
Finally, the Ajagun or Ologun refrain from unnecessary fighting as advised by the odu Okana-Owani But, when Oshoosi has good cause to shoot a victim, he, she, or it (the victim) is called an OGBO-OFA-- “He who falls victim to the arrow shot.”
When in the warrior mode, this orisha does not fight alone: His natural allies include the orishas: OBATALA, OYA, ERINLE (forest elephant in the Earth), ELEGUA, OGUN, and, OSHUN. But, frankly, Oshoosi can draw on almost all of the ori- sha for help because he is quite popular; the paragon of IWA PELE and IWA ‘RE ’RE (good, gentle and knowledgeable character). For the most part, he appears in the Odu (i.e., the omodu) of EJIOKO (OYEKUN), IROSUN, ODI (Edi), OWONRIN more often than in others. But wherever Oshoosi speaks, as he is constantly on the hunt for truth, he is able to give people the clearest, most direct, and most effective way to accomplish their goals—just as the swiftly flying arrow goes straight to its target without deviation.
OSHOOSI'S ROLES IN CIVIL SOCIETY
As mentioned briefly before, hunters were providers, par excellence. In their roles as members of small settlements, they could be counted on to locate their favorable locations to start with. They were the owners of the riverbanks. And since early settle- ments were near water, and the rivers and streams were used for the earliest versions of commerce, the settlements also became the original market places.
Oshoosi is said to be the originator of all the important social institutions needed to make settlement living possible--and civil. For example, the hunters would play roles of game wardens and sentries (doubling as toll collectors) to protect villagers. When the sequestration of slaves or wrongdoers was necessary, the hunter-warriors could be counted on to bind and detained him. (In early societies there were no “standing armies” nor “professional full-time “police forces” to ensure public safety in order. But the people needed hunter-warriors to protect the riches of the settlement from raiders and en- slavers. That is, they had to protect the ashes of the ilu (i.e., they had to protect the wealth and order (or the “ASHE ILU”) of the town. (To this day, Afro-Cuban practitioners of Yoruba religion referred to the police as the “achelu” because one of the meanings of the word ASHE is “law, commandment, instruction, and order” And ilu, of course, refers to a town. I have been told that Afro-Cuban Lucumi priest avoid whistling around an Elegua because of the fear that this will bring the Achelu! HOW OSHOOSI GOT TO BE AN HERBALIST
Oshoosi’s role as a healer comes into play when we consider his role as a healer or ONISEGUN who knew the locations and uses of the ewe (plants) necessary for various types of physical and spiritual medicinals.
Now is the time for another quick story. One day Oshoosi was in the forest and he came upon the orisha of herbs and plants called OSAYIN or ARONI. Oshoosi was not successful that day and hunting, and so he accepted Osayin’s invitation to visit him at his home. When he got there, of scion offered him a drink that had a powerful sedative in it that caused him to be “spaced out” enter lose his memory of his life in the forest. He stayed with Osayin for quite a while learning how to prepare various plants in order to create powerful medicines (OOGUN).
Eventually, his big brother Ogun missed him, then located him at the house of Osayin and, thereupon, fetched him back into the igbo--his enchanted forest. And this is how Oshoosi became ADAHUNSHE or an OSAINISTA (an Osayin sorcerer) and an ONIS- EGUN or “medicine man.” Finally, in the bush he is often covered with amulets and rough clothing. But when in town, Oshoosi, as mentioned, he is considered an urbane sophisticate who dresses in “a gown of beads”; meaning finery. Thus, omo Oshoosi are known to be sharp dressers. Be gainsaid that “there is no trap nor lock that Oshoosi cannot open!” To begin with, Oshoosi-inspired hunter-warriors were also skilled as animal tamers and the builders of corrals, stockades, and slave pens. And, thus, needless to say, they were associated with the skill in making pits traps, snares and bindings. But as hunters, they were also responsible for the isolation of people who were infected with leprosy into secluded colonies. As such, these were the first version of jails and penal colonies in humanity’s history, though slave-holding pens or baracoons followed from these early versions of corrals. If time permits, I will comment on the indirect connection between Oshoosi’s institutions of confinement, like leper colonies, on the one hand and the concept of APETIBI, on the other when we get to the section on Oshooi’s friendship with the orisha Oshun. As hunter warriors, with an emphasis on warrior, Oshoosi children could also serve as warlords. One such example was a leg- endary figure Timi of fame in the itan-patakin of Oba Ko So; a famous story about the death (and resurrection) of the orisha Shango by hanging himself from an Ayan tree after shaming himself because of his impetuousness, anger, and poor judgement; where he had once been revered as a just and wise king. Shango was implicated in a palace intrigue that involved Oya and his two top generals Gboka (a sorcerer) and Timi (an Oshoosi archer) vying for power. In the end, these two generals and Shango died. But Oya, after making sure that the community always held Shango in the highest of esteem by raising up the cry “Oba Ko So” (the king did not die!). After this, grief-stricken, she cried so many tears at his loss that she created the River Oya (or the Niger river). The moral of the story: Oshoosi spirited people avoid premature ascension into royal leadership and avoid palace intrigues or quests For fame. And, unlike Timi in the itan-patakin cited here, the omo Oshoosi also avoids direct challenges to an oba, bec- ause some oba have the willingness and the wiliness to manipulate others, including the Queen Ruler of the Aje (Oshoronga) and, ultimately, the King of the Aje, into destroying him—even as a war- lord (especially as a warlord) if he becomes too ambitious before his turn.
Let me get back on track: The next key point is that Oshoosi is responsible for creating all of the social instit- utions-- especially of the institutions or churches of congregational religious worship--as well as those which “house” captive people and animals such as zoos, colonies of confinement, jails, hospitals, and so on. Given Oshoosi’s investment as one of the founders of society’s institutions (and, thanks to his father ODEDE (Oranmiyan), the originator of the whole concept and field of psychology in Yoruba culture, it is small wonder that he ably serves as an enforcer of right order to protect society’s institutions.
CONNECTIONS TO SOCIETY: SOCIAL JUSTICE, MORALITY, AND ETHICS
Now is the time for another little story or itan-apatakin because will explain Oshoosi’s connection to the pursuit of open-eyed justice in this world. Let’s start this way: there are many versions of this parable but they are almost always similar. Oshoosi lived in a hut in the forest. (In the towns, his abode and shrine that serves as a refuge for those who are needy and down on their luck, is al- ways painted white). But in these early times he lived in the woods. It was reported that his hut tended to be untidy, if not in disarray. Along with him lived his parrot. One day he was hunting and he came upon two pheasants--his favorite game birds. He skillfully took them as prey and carried them back to his hut to hang them up to cure. While he was gone, he was assigned by Olofi (that part of the Godhead that interacts with humanity) to hunt for him. He carried out his tasks admirably, as he was renowned as the best hunter in the forest. But when he returned home, unknown to him, his mother (“Yemoja” in the Afro-Cuban versions of the story) had paid a visit to his hut and decided to clean and tidy it up. She noticed the two birds hanging there being cured. So, she decided to take them home and cook a nice meal for her son Oshoosi. However, not knowing this, when Oshoosi returned home to find his birds missing, the uttered a terrible incantation (odege, igede) that only his parrot ‘s under- stood and then proceeded to put poison on the tip of one of his arrows. After that, with a curse, and not knowing who the culprit was (no investigating the matter), he dec- reed that once he shot his arrow’s he—this one arrow Hunter -- willed that it should come down and pierce the heart of whom- ever it was that stole his birds. Upon doing this, a short while later, the arrow pierced the heart of his mother, Yemoja, and killed her.’ [A variation of this story begins with Orunmila telling Oshoosi that Olofi (God) wanted a special (red?) bird to be captured. Oshoosi took on the task and was successful. He presented the bird to Olofi who, in gratitude, named Oshoosi to be the king of the hunters. He then asked Oshoosi if he would like anything else. Oshoosi replied, "yes, I want the justice of death to befall whomever stole the first bird that I took as prey for you." So, with that, Olofi allowed him to shoot his arrow into the sky with that curse. The arrow then struck the heart of his mother, Yemoja.' This version of the itan-patakin misses the point: it implies that Olofi encouraged "blind justice" and revenge; something of dubious accuracy].
By pursuing “blind justice” he mistakenly turned his impulsive, anger-laden strategy into a “stragedy”, i.e. a strategic tragedy. So, OLOFI condemned him to be the chief pursuer of justice for all eternity. But, unlike in the Western world, he realized that justice requires an investigation and an open-eyed approach, less terrible outcomes obtain. There should be no “blind justice.” This is the true message of this parable. I have already mentioned many of the orisha that Oshoosi is commonly assoc- iated with in the annals (i.e., the ese Ifa and Orisha-Ifa’s ITAN-PATAKIN). Again, they include Eleegua, Ogun, Inle, Osun, Oshun, Yemoja, Oya (or Aja, the world- wind), Obatala and “Aje” (in Benin). Naturally, his ori includes the com- prehend- sion and skills of the ashe of the plants—i.e., the orisha OSAYIN. Never forget, Oshoosi is first and foremost a forest wizard or sorcerer. (It is the Osayin that serves as the brotherly and sisterly link between Orisha-Ifa, Vodou, Palo Monte or Palo Moyombe, and arts of the brujo and the curandero, as well as all of the cultural religions that grew out of the epic of the hunter-forager).
ODE IN YORUBALAND
Oshoosi is venerated each year in Ile Ife to this day. Religious ceremonies that involve the Yoruba people, as we specifically know them today, have anteced- ents and progenitors that go back about 2,700 years, though they were not Yor- uba by name until the last few centuries. I often refer to their predecessors “proto-Yoruban” (Igbo, Nok and Nupe) and in my (probably inadequate way) of trying to loc- ate them into the history of the hunting and gathering cultures that preceded them in the plateaus and wooded areas of west coastal Africa. I began this video by touching on the nature of hunter-forager societies as a first step in fully ap- preciating the hunter archetype (and, specifically, the Oshoosi prototype) in Yoruba religion. Oshoosi was there when the hunting and gathering cultures became agriculturalists when the proto-Yoruba people became more linguistically distinct from the IGBO, the IGALA, and the EDO over the next 1,500 years. Thereafter, they entered into the so-called “Golden Age” of Yoruba history around 1,000 AD. That age came to its demise by the end of the 18th cen. due to internecine warfare among their various principalities, and was com- pletely buried with the advent of British colonization near the end of the 19th cen.
The cultural and religious-mythological history runs something like this: Prior to the arrival of Od- uduwa “from the East” the Yoruba area had traditional tribes and religious lives. (Incidentally, “from the East” does not mean “from Egypt”). But, the people of Ile Ife, the headquarters—so to speak—of the old order succumbed to the forces of the oni Oduduwa. These groups included the Ife ODAYE (the leading council of guilds, cults and royals of Ile Ife), the IFE MEFA and IFE ELU groups of IFE). It also appears that the Ife also had a juridical council called the Egbe Ogboni (Oshugbo) which is highly ven- erated to this day. I was also informed—and I hope correctly so, since I am no historian nor anthropologist--that Ile Ife founded by a chief of hunters names ORELUERE. (And this orisha serves as a road, camino, or “pool”—meaning he is a type of Oshoosi--in Brasil but is known, in Africa, as a progenitor and protector of Oduduwa and is a chief of the forest villages that resisted invasions.
Going on, Oduduwa sired 16 sons and they dispersed all over the land founding kingdoms and estab- lishing the “first gener- ation” of Yoruba capital towns. Because of their dispersal, the dynasty of Oduduwa had to contend with a co-existence with religionists that had always been there. And they had to contend with other prior inhabitants who initiated a guerilla war, including spiritual terror, against them. Fortunately, from their perspective, a female leader, maybe a queen, named Moremi Àjàṣorò led a successful resistance to the returning rebels’ plans; though she too suffered a great loss. Her son OLORUGBO had been killed in the battle.
In the meantime, the sons of Oduduwa and their kingdoms developed a subsequent history that included these features: SETILU (previously AGBONIREGUN--'counselor who uses coconut for goodness and power') and OKANBI ('the birth of the heart gets pushed into existence') previously IDEKOSEOAKE) helped to es- tablish Oduduwa as they were his sons. One of Okanbi’s issue, the youngest of his seven boys and girls, was the youngest and least experienced son as a warlord named ORANIYAN (ORAN- MIYAN) who was to also become a deified ancestor—a god war—and the founder of Old Oyo; its first Alafin. (Shango was the third alafin). He was regarded as the most intelligent and talented of all the children, so he inherited dominion over all of the land and its polities.
Oranmiyan had an oriki for which he became famous. And that nickname was Odede. It is to Odede that we credit the founding of the concept of “psychology” among the Yoruba and it is he who was the secular or worldly father of Oshoosi. I will mention him again will we briefly go over some of the “ki ki” or “oriki” of the orisha Oshoosi. WHAT IS THE TIME AND PLACE OF OSHOOSI'S ORIGIN One may ask: Among the orisha, where does the spirit of Oshoosi originate? Here is an answer. But first, let’s look at the question of where do all of the orisha originate? Some orisha are truly cosmic deities, i.e., they are irunmoles--those who first populated the Divinosphere at a cosmic level and brought light and spirit into it. In my interpretation of Yoruba theology, I believe that it is best to postulate the concept of pre-Creation because there were the cosmic forces of ESHU and OLORUN (OLODUMARE NYAMBE) or God.
A story: On one instance, in pre-Creation times, Olorun was busy planning for the advent of the world, but then heard an unusual sound. When Olorun turned to look, there was an unusual figure nearby. Olorun, shouted at the figure “Who are you?” And the intruder, Eshu looked at Olorun and replied “Well, who are you?”
After that, a first wave of primordial orisha or IRUNMOLE issued from Olorun: Among these immediate progeny were such supernatural entities as EGUN, ORISHAN’LA--OBATALA, ORUNMILA, and ODUDUWA. In some accounts, there are even some Yorubans who consider the orisha SHANGO to be a primordial orisha as well; and not just a deified ancestor. (But, again in my view, the cosmic forces and forerunner to Orunmila, ELA and ODU, as the originators of all space, light and worldly substance and experiences, surely should qualify as irunmole too). Following them, a total of 400 and 1 orisha were manifested by Olorun, but only 17 were originally sent to Earth—the other remaining in the DIVINOSPHERE. The orisha Oshun was the 17th member of that group. But that does not mean that she was not a primordial of the first order herself because, after all, she is credited with being God’s “cosmic seamstress” who used her five knitting needles (her ABARE) to knit together the fabric of the universe. But even in her less august role as the 17th orisha, she—alone—was credited with having put the affairs of Earth in order so that orisha and people could live on it successfully and without fratricide. She also established the equality and lib- eration of womankind is fundamental to Yoruba’s Orisha-Ifa religion.
By contrast, Oshoosi, in the Yoruba tradition, seems to have been a terrestrial orisha—born of this World, and born as a blessing to this world. As we will see in the lest section of this video, there may be an indirect connection between Oshoosi, on the one hand, and the ancient Nubian religions—adopted by the Egyptians, on the other. It may be that Oshun—as her role as the cosmic seamstress--is responsible for elevating him to the cosmic level of existence because she put the great Hunter in the night sky, “Orion” along with his dog companion (the star Sirius) there as well in the forms of Osiris and Sahu (as Orion), on the one hand, and Isis, on the other.
OSHOOSI'S CONNECTIONS TO HIS FRIEND OSHUN Finally, though this does not deal with the origins of Oshoosi, it is essential story to understand his relationship with the orisha Oshun. As you would recall, early in this video we became briefly familiar with a list of Yoruba religious terms that I suggested had, at least, loose connections with the natural and supernatural dimensions of the Orisha Oshoosi; some of which involve, his friend, the orisha Oshun. Here is the story in a nutshell.
Near the river that now bears her name, the Oshun River, in Yorubaland, she had a grove of trees. And she also engaged in the art of making indigo dye. Apparently, she stored some of her pots near the river. One day, a hunter named OLOTUMENE LAROYE (and undoubtedly possessed of the spirit of Oshoosi and the conten- tious Eshu Laroye who is connected to both Oshun and Oshoosi) came to her river with a party of woodsmen to chop down trees and make a settlement on the banks of her river. Unfortunately, one of the trees fell and broke some of her pots. She shouted in great consternation.
But, being Oshun—with whom the very benediction “May your losses turn into gains” was born—convinced the hunter and the woodsmen to leave her grove (her OSUSU) near the river untouched and, instead, to build the settlement they were interested in a safe distance away from her magical groves. They did. And this is how the capital of the area became named OSHOGBO (“The forest grove of wizards” or, in plain English, an enchanted forest) with this hunter becoming its first ruler or ATAOJA—(“One who feeds the fish with his hands”). I was also informed that the home of the orisha Oshoosi is very nearby this area--in a town called Irabiji.
OSHOOSI'S AND OSHUN'S LEXICON ARE CONNECTED Oson (bow string) Sise (to work)
Osi (left) Igbo (woods) Osho (wizard or sorcerer, camouflaged pit) Osho-(o)sise (left-handed working wizardry)
Osho (the thorns/spikes left in a pit trap (Aw Shaw)
Osho-(i)gbo (or Oshogbo-- the grove of wizardry) Osu (the source)
Osun (A communication device or symbol for direct communication with “the Source”). Ori-(o)sun (The “head source”; an appellation for Oshun. Same as Ibi Pataki “this narrowed, contracted, concentra- ted, but generative source of importance).”
Oshun (Orisha of nurturance, harmony, ewe, pleasantries and abundance). Osusu (a grove of trees, bramble bush)
Osu (a single tuft of hair)
AN ASIDE: APETIBI
(As promised earlier let me offer a quick aside: Many of you have heard the term apetibi which refers to the ritual wife of a baba- lawo and a nurse-servant of the sagely Orunmila; the deity of wisdom, hindsight, insight, and foresight. One of the translations of that term is “the one whose mother we cured from leprosy’s scars” (“APA ETE BII”). The word “Apet” in the word-phrase apetibi may be related to the Egyptian mythological figure “Apet” (This term, apet, means “the nurse” in the KMT language and comes from their word “Ipet” or “I.pt.” She was the water-cow (or hippopotamus)--a maternal icon of Mehurt-Hathor in Nubia; and bec- ame known as Tawaret, the nurse cow (hippo) in KMT. It is she who nursed the newborns of humanity into existence.
The issue of leprosy arose in very early KMT religions because some of the detractors of the original Nubian matrifocal religion—and internecine strife in various KMT religions was frequent in ancient times--believed that the mother-cow goddess’ only male co-regent was her “bull” son (“Set”). This raised the spectre of incest and that, in turn, was ascribed to be the cause of leprosy. So, this spin on Apet was discrediting as is the rap that “Set” consistently gets in KMT lore. But this deity Apet was also associated with the concepts of an “ark,” i.e., a crib or nursery) that carried of the “words of a (wise) declarant.” These are metaphors for the idea of being a nurturer of new-born (newly divined) ideas. Hence, as an “apetibi,” her role is to receive, contain and nurture (i.e., to help to carry-out) the wordy and wise instructions of Ifa for the benefit of her Oluwo and the client alike. I mention this quick aside on the idea of Apetibi only because we will have cause to comment on Oshoosi’s relationship to the orisha Oshun who, most often, is the OLORI (guardian angel or saint) of the apetibi (at least, as far as Afro-Cuban Lucumi Orisha-Ifa religion is concerned). More on this later.
But now back to Oshoosi—as one of the deities of civil society, as well as a deity of the forest—with an emphasis on being a warrior in an otherwise civil society. As hunter warriors, with an emphasis on warrior, Oshoosi children could also serve as warlords. One such example was a leg- endary figure Timi of fame in the itan-patakin of Oba Ko So; a famous story about the death (and resurrection) of the orisha Shango by hanging himself from an Ayan tree after shaming himself because of his impetuousness, anger, and poor judgement; where he had once been revered as a just and wise king. Let me get back on track: The key point is that Oshoosi is responsible for creating all of the social institutions-- especially of the institutions or churches of congregational religious worship--as well as those which “house” captive people and animals such as zoos, colonies of confinement, jails, hospitals, and so on. Given Oshoosi’s investment as one of the founders of society’s in- stitutions (and, thanks to his father ODEDE (Oranmiyan), as mentioned, the originator of the whole concept and field of psych- ology in Yoruba culture, it is small wonder that he ably serves as an enforcer of right order to protect society’s institutions. And, unlike Timi in the itan-patakin cited before, the omo Oshoosi also avoids direct challenges to an oba, because some oba have the willingness and the wiliness to manipulate others, including the Queen Ruler of the Aje (OSHORONGA) and, ultimately, the King of the Aje, into destroying him—even as a warlord (especially as a warlord!) if he becomes too ambitious before his turn.
Accordingly, Oshoosi priests do everything possible to avoid breaking the law (with the only exception being for acts of free speech and non-violent civil disobedience, because justice may require those tactics and that sacrificial risk). And they do not seek notoriety. For example, following my godfather Roberto Clemente (Anya bi Osun--Iba eee!) earliest in- structions to me was not to try to impress people. I took his advice to heart. And, as a result, I have been, for almost 40 years in this religion—coming in in 1983—a pretty happy olorisha by simply being “incognegro”; eyes wide open and staying out of con- fliction. I, indeed, learned that the only thing I ever really wanted to be famous for was being not famous. Indeed, everything requires proper tempo or timing, includeing ambition and fame, if it is to be successful. This is a lesson that the Oshoosi warlord Timi did not learn.
OSHOOSI IN THE COSMOS OSHOOSI-LIKE ARCHETYPES IN NUBIA’S TA SETI AND KMT’S TA MERRI REGIONS
Finally, we to the parts dealing KMT (which is where the people of KMT got him from) and he has a huge cosmic existence in nature as the KMT archetype of “the Hunter.” That is, he—Osiris—is the largest easily recognized constellation in the night sky. But he takes the form of Orion-- that cosmic Hunter that em- bodies both Osiris and his analogous spirit Oshoosi. As a great fertilizer in life, Osiris-as-Orion is visible in the night sky at the start of the flooding of the Nile River’s (in mid-August each year) and remains visible for the next nine months of gestation in producing the abundant green agriculture of KMT. And this is why Osiris’ original color is green— signifying abundance in life through plants and crops. Oshoosi, too, signifies abundant provis- ioning for the people; bringing to them plants and animals. This is why Oshoosi is considered the father of philanthropy in Nigeria.
With this possibility considered, in KMT’s pre-dynastic times or as an icon of the Nubian archers of TA SETI (Upper Nubia), “Oshoosi” can be analogized as an IRUNMOLE too in the sense that he—as an equivalent of Osiris was also foun- dational to Nubian and Kemetic religious views of creation itself.
The term, OSAYIN or Osain (in Cuba) one of the orisha of medicine, is also related to the KMT concept of "SAHU"--rooted in the word "OSAHI"(n)--the god of the stars; i.e., the three belt stars of the con- stellation "ORION" to be exact. (Later, Sahu, became identified with Orion and thus with Osiris as a whole. The upper Nubians, from whom KMT religions were borne, were often called the original "Star People." Orion, the Hunter--was first among equals among the deified heavenly personages. We will see the "Oshoosi" connection, momentarily.
So, the KMT name for what we call "Orion" was SAH or SAHU (again from term "OSAHI") and he was the moral aspect and soul of Osiris; the conscience of the cosmos. And, in his identification with Ausar of the night sky, he was called "Orion" by the Greeks. In this form, the god Osiris is a hunter; a very great hunter of morality, indeed! Another way to say this is that Osiris, as mentioned elsewhere, is the Oshoosi or the deity of the cosmos that has been handed down to us as “Orion.” And as a "ruler" (i.e., as an "oba" in Yoruba language), he has a rulers' name--i.e., a"Horus" name. And this is why we also share the word “ori" or "head" in Yoruba language (ede Yoruba) associated with "Horus," (Heru) of the Kemites.
Sahu signifies the existence of morality in the Universe (as Ma'at does so in res- pect of that part of morality we call ethics). And he has a loyal companion--as a hunter’s dog is always loyal—in the form of KMT neter (god) ISIS; the mother of morality-in-action and the personification of ethics (MA’AT) as a fundamental property of the Universe. In the night sky, she is seen as the brightest of all of the stars--"Sirius, the Dog Star." This binary star shines brightly in the night sky, at about a 45 degree angle near the left foot of Orion. In KMT, she was called Sopdet (or Sothis), meaning "skilled woman"; "the star of the Nile." As "AUSET" or "Isis," she--like her husband-brother Osiris--was a god of fertility. And each year, at mid-August, in the KMT sky--the same one that we observe--she was the first and brightest binary star to rise over the horizon that signaled to start of the flooding of the Nile river. "Orion" also rose at that time and they remain- ed visible for next nine months; the exact period of human gestation. She is al- ways near her hunter companion.
Thus, she too is a part of the Sahu-Osiris-Horus-Ori-Oshoosi hunter-warrior-god complex shared by the ancient Kemites, Nubians, and the proto-Yoruba peoples of west Africa. Linguistically, once we account for the Coptic-Grecian pseudonyms like “Osiris” (or “Isis”), we can she a possible KMT connection to Oshoosi: “O-Shu-Osi” combining the KMT deity of the air and at- mosphere, Shu, with Osiris. Shu implies “free-flowing fluidity” like water currents, air currents, and speech currents: to wit: Oshun and Eshu. Like Eshu’s speech, like Oshun’s fresh waters, Oshoosi’s arrow flies smoothly through Shu’s atmosphere communicating life, death or justice as guided by his arrow’s vulture feathers (just as Ma’at’s ostrich feather guides Osiris to righteous and just judgments about the moral worth of the deceased). Similarly, the feathers of Oshoosi’s arrows do the same thing. Thus, the outcomes of his wide-eyed justice (which sometimes may mean exoneration from charges of wrongdoing if appro- priate contrition obtains in the client for wrongful acts) and are always seen as morally guided). Though Oshoosi can help many from being incarcerated in jails or incarcerated in mental illness, his power or ashe in this regard is never pre-emptive.
[As a quick aside, the KMT Egyptians, from the time of the “O” to 3rd dynasties onward always depicted Nubians archers—the most lethal in the world and an archetype for Oshoosi-inspired warriors--with Ostridge feathers and bows; signifying the deadly accuracy and “truth” of their archers’ aim. In fact, war chariots were first invented for them—archers who preferred to let their enemies get so close as to be able to shoot their eyes out, though they could have easily killed them much before that range clos- ed!
That is, one cannot go to Oshoosi to receive protection for doing sociopathic things beforehand. And if one’s problems are, essen- tially, ELENINI, and one’s mental anguish is self-made, these will be regarded by Os- hoosi as beyond spiritual redemption. If your ori is morally corrupt and you refuse to face it, do not come to Oshoosi because his help—if he is disposed to offer it—mainly works through the client’s ori (as reflected in his or her judgements and insights going forward). So, when his intercescessions in your life or in the ori(s) of others, it must be on the basis of equity, fairness and a willing- ness to plead to him with clean hands that the supplicant pleads with him for relief. If not, the client is not likely to be successful for absolution. From the Olodu EjiOko or Oyekun (an odu that Oshoosi speaks in often).
OSHOOSI IN BRASIL
Next to the orisha Yemoja, Oshoosi is the most widely known orisha that is venerated in the country of Brazil. As I understand it, his egbe or lineage in Brazil is called the Ketu Nation of Your about religious practitioners. Oshoosi is also the patron orisha of Brazil’s Coblocos-- the indigenous Creole mixtures of Indians and Africans in the culture.They, the Brazilians, are the most num- erous of pract- itioners in any of the nations in the Western Hemisphere. And the main versions of Orisha-Ifa religion there are called CANDOMBLE, MACUMBA and Umbanda. The roots of the Ketu nation lie in the Yoruba-Dahomean border area between Nigeria and the country of Benin where the orisha Oshoosi is known as AGA. ["Oxoosi" in Brasil is considered (as "St. Sabastian") the padron of Rio De Janiero].
PHOTO CREDITS IN THE VIDEO
0: 00 Waterfall In Forest --34 Shutterstock.com, Philip Yb Studio (creator)
01:53 Bush Bowman Hunter—7 Dreamstime.com, Alextara (creator)
02:04 Gentle person is African Female With Staff-168Dreamstime.com, Akir (creator)
11:11 Nubian Warrior With Bow-60Wikimedia, Wikimedia Commons, (non-attributed)
12:10 Green Forest With Stream-32Shutterstock.com, Teo Tarras (creator)
13:03 Hazda Hunter Man-63Dreamstime.com, Ursula (creator)
13:40 Single Orange Blossom Plant-201Shutterstock.com, Sujitra Chaowdee (creator)
15:00 Obatala Priests Sitting-- 213 Wikimedia Commons, Dierk Lange (creator)
17:11 Hunter Shooting Arrow At Bird— 67Dreamstime.com, Katiekk (creator)
17:55 Ooni of Ile Ife Portrait— 215, Getty ImagesImplied License 17 U.S.C. §§ 101-810 (Fair Use Doctrine—Non-Profit Educational Purpose)
18:25 Shrine To Orisha Oshoosi— 147© Lindakejisblog.com, Implied License 17 U.S.C. §§ 101-810 (Fair Use Doctrine—Non-Profit Educational Purpose) 18:38 Priests Of Obatala Praying To Oshoosi— 146© Lindakejisblog.com, Implied License 17 U.S.C. §§ 101-810 (Fair Use Doctrine—Non-Profit Educational Purpose)
20:17 Blue And Gold Office Building-- 114Dreamstime.com, Ulcerproject (creator)
20:21 Highland Hospital In Oakland, California-210©Michael Oshoosi Wright (creator)
20:27 Zoo Entrance—229Shutterstock.com, Richie Chan (creator)
20:34 Jail—228Shutterstock.com, Georgios Tsichlis, (creator)
20:39 Church Interior—151Shutterstock.com, Sun_Shine (creator)
21:07 Open Green Grassland-- 50Dreamstime.com, Woodooart (creator)
22:19 Three Ebora Warrior Orisha-- 170©Michael Oshoosi Wright, (creator)
22:36 Open Vessel Of Oshoosi AT Lake Tenaya, Ca.—171©Michael Oshoosi Wright, (creator)
25:15 Hunters’ Scene On Cave Wall Painting-- 37Shutterstock.com, R.M.Nunes (creator)
25:30 Two Hunters’ Scene On Cave Wall Painting— 11Dreamstime.com, Dietmarrauscher (creator)
25:41 Hunter Man Doing Divination With Animal Bones-- 156Wikimedia Commons, (creator unattributed),
26:23 Animal Tracks—139Shutterstock.com, Hamiza Bakirci (creator)
26:53 Hunter Tracking Animal-- 131Shutterstock.com. Franco Lucato (creator)
27:09 Michael Oshoosi Divination Kit—22©Michael Oshoosi Wright, (creator)
27:34 African Shaman-- 195 Dreamstime.com, Albertshakirov (creator)
27:56 Green Masked Man—202Shutterstock.com, FX Quandro (creator)
28:10 Four African Wood Sculptures-- 180 Dreamstime.com, Michalbelian (creator)
28:46 Michael Oshoosi Divination Kit--22©Michael Oshoosi Wright, (creator)
29:48 African Hunters Group Sitting-- 185Dreamstime.com, Katiekk (creator)
30:07 African Man Sitting And Talking-- 194Dreamstime.com. Lifeontheside (creator)
32:17 Picture Of Mancala-Warri Game—30©Michael Oshoosi Wright, (creator)
33:40 Picture Of Chess Game-- 29©Michael Oshoosi Wright, (creator)
35:02 Picture Of African Village From Above—4Dreamstime.com, Ecoimagesphotos, (creator)
35:35 Picture Of Go / Wei Chi Game-- 188©Michael Oshoosi Wright, (creator)
37:05 Camouflage Pattern In Nature-- 190Shutterstock.com, Serkan Direk, (creator)
40:18 River Running Through Valley-- 49Dreamstime.com, Basphoto (creator)
40:22 Cave Scene Overlooking Water-- 61Dreamstime.com, Piervb, (creator)
40:23 Trees On Open Savanna-- 60Dreamstime.com, Znm (creator)
40:27 Snow-Capped Mountain-- 58Dreamstime.com., Unicusx, (creator)
40:29 Desert Scene-- 98Dreamstime.com, Tampatra, (creator)
40:36 Fire—56Dreamstime, Fotovika, (creator)
43:13 Woman Looking At Fire-- 118Shutterstock.com, 2010 Dr_Flash
41:18 Oshoosi and Yemoja Possession Scene-- 18©Michael Oshoosi Wright, (creator)41:42 Two African Men Wrestling-- 196Shutterstock.com, klublu (creator)
42:12 Snarling Leopard—53Dreamstime.com, Flashdevelop (creator)50:03 Deer In Forest-- 124Shutterstock.com, Anan Kaewkhammul, (creator)
51:08 African Grey Parrot-- 126Shutterstock.com, Tracy Starr, (creator)
51:59 Hawk / Falcon—127Shutterstock.com, Serkan mutan (creator)
52:43 Arrow Feathers—199Unattributed, Implied License 17 U.S.C. §§ 101-810 (Fair Use Doctrine—Non-Profit Educational Purpose)
53:18 Tortoise—125Shutterstock.com, Ryan M. Bolton, (creator)
55:40 Tortoise—125Shutterstock.com, Ryan M. Bolton, (creator)
55: 53 African Girl-- 66Dreamstimes.com, Znm, (creator)
56:23 African King—135Shutterstock.com, James Dairy, (creator)
57:39 Bay Area, California Aerial Picture-- 179Unattributed, Implied License 17 U.S.C. §§ 101-810 (Fair Use Doctrine—Non-Profit Educational Purpose)
58:17 Tumble Weed / Bramble Bush-- 128Shutterstock.com, Rosamar, (creator)
58:33 Tumble Weed / Bramble Bush-- 142Dreamstime.com, Ekinaa, (creator)
59:13 Octopus—129Shutterstock.com, Julian Gunther, (creator)
59:42 African Man Dancing—113Dreamstime.com, Djembe, (creator)
1:00:52 African Spears-- 36Shutterstock.com, Tvede, (creator)
1:01:21 African Men Dressing Game With Knives-- 10Dreamstime.com, Katiekk, (creator)
1:03:13 Canoe On River-- 200Shutterstock.com, Xavier, (creator)
1:04:03 African Wizard Man-- 105Dreamstime.com, Satori13, (creator)
1:07:43 Three Orisha (Ebora) Warrior-- 205©Michael Oshoosi Wright, (creator
1:07:55 The Orisha Osun-- 227©Michael Oshoosi Wright, (creator)
1:09:59 Grey African Mask-- 121Shutterstock.com, Barandash, Karandashich, (creator)
1:10:54 African Warrior With Axe-- 136Shutterstock.com, F X Quandro, (creator)
1:12:02 African Man With Rifle-- 115Dreamstime.com, Henkbogaard, (creator)
1:12:51 African Shaman-- 195Dreamstime.com, Albertshakirov, (creator)
1:13:20 African Corral-- 62Dreamstimes.com, Pulpitis, (creator)
1:13:53 African Corral-- 33Shutterstock.com, 2630ben, (creator)
1:15:26 Victim Of Arrow Shot-- 130Shutterstock.com, (unattributed creator), Implied License 17 U.S.C. §§ 101-810 (Fair Use Doctrine—Non-Profit Educational Purpose)
1:16:21 Statuette Of (Er)Inle-- 198©Michael Oshoosi Wright, (creator)
1:16:46 Statuette Of Oshoosi-- 3By Permission, 2014, Obafemi Origunwa, Implied License 17 U.S.C. §§ 101-810 (Fair Use Doctrine—Non-Profit Educational Purpose)
1:18: 50 Sunrise Over The Hapi (Nile) River—161©Michael Oshoosi Wright, (creator)
1:19:03 African Village—Deamstime.com, Petrie, (creator)
1:19:25 African Game Warden—9Dreamstime.com, Boracayc421, (creator)
1:22:23 Plants-- 15 Wikipedia Commons (unattributed creator)
1:22:44 Osun Fetish-- 227©Michael Oshoosi Wright, (creator)
1:24:27 African Shaman-- 195Dreamstime.com, Albertshakirov, (creator)
1:25:09 African Man With Scarf-- 116Shutterstock.com, Kuziva Shamu
1:26:10 Pit In The Earth—48Dreamstime.com, Igorxiii, (creator)
1:28:10 African Fire Archer-- 78Permission by Iya Oyawunmi, via Obafemi Origunwa, 2014Implied License, 17 U.S.C. §§ 101-810 (Fair Use Doctrine—Non-Profit Educational Purpose)
1:29:01 Scary African Man—230Shutterstock.com, Fractal Pictures, (creator)
1:34:33 African Market-- 133Shutterstock.com, Aleksander, Todorovic, (creator) 1:37:21 Two Pheasants-- 216Wikimedia Commons, Phasianus, colchicus, (creator)
1:37:54 Stealthy Hunter--27Shutterstock.com, MSMondadori, (creator)
1:41:07 Blind Justice Figure—158Shutterstock.com, Icedmocha, (creator)
1:41:46 Two Forest Women--108Dreamstock.com, Uryadnikov, Surgey, (creator)
1:44:48 Nubian Village--109Dreamstime.com, Mauricebrand, (creator) 1:45:16 Nubian Warrior Carvings--110Dreamstime.com, Svedoliver, (creator)
1:46:00 Oduduwa Mask—163 Wikipedia Commons, I. Sailco, (creator)
1:50:45 African Queen—119Shutterstock.com, Phil Halfmann, (creator)
1:51:50 African Boy—51Dreamstime.com, Nyiragogo, (creator)
1:55:28 Green Masked Man—202Shutterstoc.com, F X Quandro, (creator)
1:56:51 Light Burst--68Dreamstime.com, Digifoxy, (creator)
1:57:41 Outer Space Nebula—25Wikipedia Commons, Rogelio Bernal, (creator)
1:58:56 Globe—64Dreamstime.com, 7xpert, (creator)
1:59:41 African Girl Glamor Shot—120Shutterstock.com, Jin Yong, (creator)
2:01:00 Smiley Face In Outer Space—0(Unattributed, NASA?, Implied License, 17 U.S.C. §§ 101-810 (Fair Use Doctrine—Non-Profit Educational Purpose)
2:01:47 Single Tree—66Dreamstime.com, Davidgn, (creator)
2:02: 08 Oshun River In Oshogbo, Nigeria—204Wikimedia Commons, Chuks Tolu-Obu, (creator)
2:03:04 African Man With Peacock Feather-- 117Shutterstock.com, Leonard Hugo, (creator)
2:03:54 Angry Illustrated Face—123Shutterstock.com, CassetteBleue, (creator)
2:04:33 Grove Of Trees, Oshogbo, Nigeria, 138Shutterstock.com, Olha Solodenko, (creator)
2:05:01 African Village At Night—4Dreamstime.com, Ecoimagesphotos, (creator)
2:05: 18 Enchanted Forest—57Dreamstime.com, Nikkizalewki, (creator)
2:05:41 African Dancing Woman—122Shutterstock.com, Joelee Art, (creator)
2:07:12 African Forest Scene—140Shutterstock.com, Teo Tarras, (creator)
2:08:51 Osun Figurine—227©Michael Oshoosi Wright, (creator)
2:09:08 Oshoosi Osun (Belongs To Alashe Michael Oshoosi)—224©Michael Oshoosi Wright, (creator)
02:11:24 Nubian Town—109Dreamstime.com, Maurice Brand, (creator)
02:11:43 Nubian Warriors—174Wikipedia Commons , Osama Shulir Muhammed Amin, (creator)
02:12:07 Nubian Family Illustration 102, Dreamstime.com, Incomible, (creator) 02:12:32 Apet (Tawaret) Illustration—40Wikimedia, Wikipedia Commons, Unattributed Illustration
02:12:49 Tawaret Illustration—178Wikimedia, Wikipedia Commons, Boston MFA, (owner),Implied License, 17 U.S.C. §§ 101-810 (Fair Use Doctrine—Non-Profit Educational Purpose)
02:16:53 Person’s Hand With Leprosy—44Wikimedia, Wikipedia Commons, BBC (owned), Implied License, 17 U.S.C. §§ 101-810 (Fair Use Doctrine —Non-Profit Educational Purpose)
02:17:06 Young Girl Cooking With Steam-- 184Dreamstime.com, Ashleybnash
02:17:10 Glamour Portrait Of Young Woman-- 107Dreamstime.com. Oskanov, (creator)
02:17:52 Nubian Warriors In Ranks And Files—Wikimedia Commons, (unattributed)
02:19:26 Osiris (Green)—69Dreamstime.com, Editorwork99, (creator)
02:19:47 Hot Air Balloons Over Kemet-- 42 ©Michael Oshoosi Wright, (creator)
02:20:11 Orion Constellation—134Shutterstock.com (Unattributed)
02:20:15 Orion Constellation Illustration—24Wikipedia Commons, (Unattributed)
02:21:30 Orion Constellation Illustration—24Shutterstock.com (Unattributed)
02:23:54 Sunrise Over The Nile River—161©Michael Oshoosi Wright, (creator)
02:24:04 Nile River©Michael Oshoosi Wright, (creator)
02:24:27 Vegetation In The Nile Valley—166©Michael Oshoosi Wright, (creator)
02:26:47 African Man In Forest—59Dreamstime.com, Surz01, (creator)
02:27:00 Brasilian Coblocos Indian—137Shutterstock.com, celio messias silva, (creator)
02:27:12 Oshoosi Bas Relief Art—207Wikipedia Commons, Catacumba Park (Unattributed) Implied License, 17 U.S.C. §§ 101-810 (Fair Use Doctrine —Non-Profit Educational Purpose)
02:27:26 Orishan’la / Obatala Sculpture In Brasil—212Wikipedia Commons, (Unattributed) Implied License, 17 U.S.C. §§ 101-810 (Fair Use Doctrine—Non-Profit Educational Purpose)
02: 24:04 O.S.P.A.A.L. Poster, Cuba, 1970—165O.S.P.A.A.L (owner) ) Implied License, 17 U.S.C. §§ 101-810 (Fair Use Doctrine—Non-Profit Educational Purpose)